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The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) Benchmark Surveys of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad in 1982, 1989, 1994 and 1999 provide a panel of data on the financial and operating characteristics of U.S. multinational 
firms.

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In order to limit the heterogeneity of the sample, observations are restricted to U.S. firms 
with parent companies in manufacturing industries (as defined in the BEA survey using a 
classification that corresponds almost exactly to SIC codes 20-39). In each of the four 
benchmark years, all affiliates with sales, assets, or net income in excess of certain size cutoffs of 
no more than $7 million in absolute value, and their parents, were required to file extensive 
reports. Measures of aggregate foreign activity of individual firms are obtained by summing 
measures of activity across the firm’s foreign affiliates. The surveys collect sufficient 
information to quantify domestic and foreign assets, net property, plant and equipment, 
employment compensation, employment, RD spending, exports and total sales
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For an analysis of the effect of foreign direct investment on GDP growth rates of small tax havens, see Hines 
(2005). 

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The International Investment and Trade in Services Survey Act governs the collection of the data and the Act 
ensures that “use of an individual company’s data for tax, investigative, or regulatory purposes is prohibited.” 
Willful noncompliance with the Act can result in penalties of up to $10,000 or a prison term of one year. As a result 
of these assurances and penalties, BEA believes that coverage is close to complete and levels of accuracy are high. 
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Parent company equity and debt investments in foreign affiliates are subtracted from the parent’s total assets in 
order to avoid spurious correlations between changes in foreign assets and changes in domestic assets.

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Zita 4级
2008-05-20 回答
该经济分析局( BEA的)基准调查,美国对外直接投资在1982年, 1989年, 1994年和1999年提供的一个小组对数据的财务和经营的特点,美国跨国公司
公司。 

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在为了限制非均质性抽样,观察,限制美国公司
与母公司在制造业(定义在BEA的调查,使用
分类对应的几乎完全碳化硅守则20-39 ) 。在每四个
基准年,所有子公司与销售,资产,或纯收入在超过一定规模的截止时间
不超过700万美元的绝对值,和他们的家长,须广泛的档案
报告。措施总结外国活性的个别企业得到了总结
措施的活动在整个公司的外国子公司。调查收集足够
信息量化,国内和国外的资产,净物业,厂房及设备, 
就业补偿,就业,路消费,出口和销售总额
5 
为效应分析外商直接投资对国内生产总值增长率小避税地,看到海因斯
( 2005年) 。 

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在国际投资和服务贸易调查法,执政收集的数据和行为
确保“利用个别公司的数据为税,调查,或规管的目的是禁止” 。 
意志不遵守该法可能会导致刑罚,直至一点零零万美元或一所监狱,任期一年。作为一个结果
这些保证和惩罚, BEA公司认为,覆盖面接近完成和水平的精度高。 
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公司的母公司股票及债券的投资在外国子公司的减去了从母公司的资产总额在
为了避免杂散之间的相关变化,在外国的资产和变化,在国内资产