商贸英语作业

Answer the following questions in English.(本大题共10小题,每题10分,共100分;所有题目请用英文答题)

1.     Mention some of the risks the exporter and the importer may face in trade.

2.      Explain briefly the following methods of payment: cash in advance, open account, consignment transactions.

3.      What is the unique feature of the letter of credit? How does it offer security to the buyer and the seller?

4.      What are the main contents of a letter of credit? Mention at least 10 items.

5.      What are the advantages and limitations of the letter of credit?

6.      Explain the difference between revocable letter of credit and irrevocable letter of credit?

7.      What are the major contents of the bill of lading?

8.      Explain insurable interest briefly and give an example to illustrate it.

9.      What are the major factors that may influence the exchange rate?

10.   Illustrate the respective advantages and disadvantages of the flexible exchange rate system and the fixed exchange rate system. 

最佳答案
本回答由提问者推荐

Jojo 3级
2011-08-25 回答
我已经将答案和译文发到你邮箱了,你去看一下。
2011-08-19 回答
1.     Mention some of the risks the exporter and the importer may face in trade.
 
       To exporters, they are those who provide goods, the main risk whether they can get full payment or not after they ship their goods overseas to the buyers. They may be affected by the flutuating cost of raw materials for products and 

exchange rate. And there is also risks in transportation from exporters' side to the importers' side. What's more, the political status of an importers' country and districts will have an effect on the receipt of payment.

      To importers, they are those who pay the money and want to get the goods that they require. They face the risk of getting no goods or goods that are not as per required quality, quantity and timely delivery time after paying the exporter's money. For instance, if they receive the goods late, they may not be able to sell out the goods in that season. It is also risky that the exporters tell their program and designs to other people so that there are too many competitors in the markets, and then once they receive the goods, they cannot sell the goods well, either.
 
2.      Explain briefly the following methods of payment: cash in advance, open account, consignment transactions.

         Cash in advance : For this form of payment, the risk for the buyer is very great, and for the seller very little. And partical cash in advance is often used in combination with other forms of  payment.
         Open account: It is actually credit provided by the seller to the buyer. High risks are involved for the seller who generally does not use this form of payment unless he has adequate trust in the credit worthiness of the buyer.
          Consignment transation: i.e. The exporter entrusts his goods to his agent abroad for sale. The exporter retains title to the goods with all the relevant responsibility and risks before they are sold, and the agent gets commission after the goods are sold.

 3.      What is the unique feature of the letter of credit? How does it offer security to the buyer and the seller?

        L/C involves in a thirty party that will protect the benefit of both the export and the the importer. The third party is often banks. 

 4.      What are the main contents of a letter of credit? Mention at least 10 items.

         Letters of credit include the following contents: (1) The number of the credit and the place and time of its establishment. (2) The type of the credit. (3) The contract on which it is based. (4) The major parties relevant to the credit, such as the applicant, opening bank, beneficiary, advising bank. etc.. (5) The amount or value of the credit. (6) The place and date on which the credit expires. (7) The description of the goods including name of commodity, quantity, specifications, packing,unit price, price terms, etc.. (8) Transportation clause including the port of shipment, the port of destination, the time of shipment, whether allowing partial shipments or transshipment. (9) Stipulations relating to the draft. (10) Stipulations concerning the shipping cocuments required. (11)Others.

5.      What are the advantages and limitations of the letter of credit?

         The letter of credit has greatly facilitated and promoted internationnal trade.However,like any other methods of payment,it is not perfect.It cannot provide absolute security for the contracting parties.The seller may sustain losses because of the buyer's delay even failure in the establishment of credit.The buyer may suffer losses as a result of the documents presented by the seller which do not truly represent the goods shipped.And it is not absoluted by the voidable that the bank may become insolvent or bankrupt.Besides,it is more expensive to use the letter of credit than remittance or collection as the bank will charge its client for all the services it provides.So the letter of credit may not be the most ideal method of payment for a particular transaction,and the contracting parties should make their best choice according to the specific conditions.

6.      Explain the difference between revocable letter of credit and irrevocable letter of credit?

        The credit is a revocable one if such commitments a can be altered or even canceled without consulting with the beneficiary.It is quite obvious that the exporter has little assurance to get payment,and therefore this type of credits are rarely used.Irrevocable credits are those that cannot be amended or revoked without the  consent of all the parties concerned.Safe and reliable,this type is extensively used in world trade.

7.      What are the major contents of the bill of lading?

         The major contents of the bill of lading include: (1) the carrier, i.e. the shipping company. (2) the shipper or consignor, it is normally the exporter. (3) the consignee. It is generally either the importer or made out "to order". (4) the notify party, i.e. the party to be advised after arrival of the goods at the port of destination. It is often the agent of the consignee or the consignee himself. (5) a  general descrption of the goods including the name, number of packages, weight, measurement etc.. (6)shipping marks. (7) the port of shipment and the port of destination.(8) the freight, for CIF  and CFR it should be "freight to prepaid", or "freight paid ",for FOB it shuld be "freight to collcet", or "freight to be paid", or "fredight payable at destination". (9) the place where the bill of lading is issued. (10) the date when the bill of lading is issued which is  regarded as the time of shipment and can by no means be later than that stipulated im the credit.
 
8.      Explain insurable interest briefly and give an example to illustrate it.
         
       Insurance is a risk transfer mechanism,whereby the individual or the business enterprise can shift some of the uncertainty of life onto the shoulders of others.Inretrun for a knowmn premium, usually a very small amount compared with the potential loss, the cost of that loss can be transferred to an insurer. Without insurance, there would be a great deal of uncertainty experienced by an individual or an enterprise ,not only as to whether a loss would occur, but also as to what size it ould be if it did occur.
        For example, a house_owner will realize that each year several hundred houses are damaged by fire. His uncertainty is whether in the coming yerar his house will be one of those damaged, and he is also uncertain whether, given that he will be one of the unlucky ones, his loss will amount to a hundred dollars or so for the redecoration of his ditchen or whether the house will be gutted and cost him thousands of dollars to repair. Even though the probability of his house becoming one of the loss statistics is extremely low, the average house_owner iwll nevertheless select to spend, say $50 to $60 on house insurance, rather than face the extremely remote possibility of losing a house worth $200 000.


9.      What are the major factors that may influence the exchange rate? 
         
          Factors influencing the exchange rate include the following:
          1. International balance of payment. It has a direct bearing on the supply and demand of foreign exchange. The value of one's own currency will go up with favorable balance of payment and drop with BOP deficit.
          2. Inflation.It is closely related to the real value of the currency and the competitiveness of the commodity. When inflation intensifies, the value of the currency will drop relative to foreign currencies and vice versa.
          3.Interest rate. Under specific conditions,high interest rate will attract short term international fund, increasing the exchange rate of one's own currency and vice versa.

10.    Illustrate the respective advantages and disadvantages of the flexible exchange rate system and the fixed exchange rate system. 
       The two different exchange rate systems each has its own advantages. The fixed exchange rate system reduces the riskiness of international business and is also an iimportant measure to curb inflation. However, the system is vulnerable to disorderly changes in currency value. The most recent example is the Asian Finaacial Crisis of 1997-1998 when the fixed exchange rate adopted by some Southeast Asian coutries like Thailand and Indonesia collapsed and dealt a heavy blow to the economy. Under the flexible exchange rate system fluctuations of the exchange rate within a definite period of time will not immediately affect domestic money circulation and is helpful to the stability of the economy. Flexible exchange rate can also protect domestic currecncy from the impact of foreign idle funds and helps to prevent the drain of foreign exchange reserve. But frequent wild swings of the value of currencies will increase the riskiness of trade and affect international investment.
追问:

您好:你能把答案的中文翻译发给我吗?QQ:409542993

追答:

1。提一些风险出口商和进口商可能面临在交易。对出口商,他们是那些主要的风险提供货物,他们是否能得到全额付款后,他们还是不船货物海外给买方。他们可能受原材料成本flutuating产品和汇率。也有风险出口商的运输到另一侧进口商的身旁吧!更重要的是,政治地位的国家和地区业者会影响收到付款。进口商,他们是那些付出的金钱和想要得到他们需要的货物。他们面临着风险得到任何货物、货物,不是按所要求的质量、数量和及时的交货时间在支付出口商的钱。例如,如果他们收到货物的时间晚了,他们可能不能卖出的商品的位置。这也是危险的,告诉他们的计划和设计出口到其他的人民,以便有太多的竞争市场,一旦他们收到货,他们不可能出售商品。

2 .简要地说明:以下的方式预付现款开账户、寄售交易。预付现款:这种形式的支付,买方风险非常大,并为卖方很少。助词预付现款,常用于结合其他形式的支付。开户:它实际上是由卖方提供贷款给买方。高项风险为出卖人通常并不用这种方式付款,除非他有足够的信任买方的信用状况。寄售交易:如下。委托他的货物出口国外,他的经纪人出售。出口商保留对货物的所有权与所有相关的责任和风险在销售之前,受托人后得到委员会商品销售国。

3。什么是独特的特征信用证?它是如何提供安全至买方,卖方吗?信用证包括一百三十年政党,将保护双方的利益和进口商出口。第三方往往是银行的第四位。有哪些主要内容的信用证吗?提到至少10物品。信用证内容包括如下:(1)数量的信贷和成立地点和时间。(2)该类型的信用。(3)合同根据。(4)主要党派的有关信贷,诸如投保人、受益人,通知开证行,bank.等。(5)大量减少或价值的信用。(6)这地方,日期信用证有效期之内。(7)提到的商品的性能说明包括品名、数量、规格、包装、单价、价格术语,等。(8)运输条款包括装运港、目的港、装运期,是否允许分批装运和转船。(9)有关规定草案。(10)信用证未对有关运输规定要求。Others.5(11)。 有什么优点和局限性信用证?信用证供应大大方便,促进贸易。然而,就像任何其他的方式,它是不完美的。它不能提供绝对安全的缔约方。卖方有蒙受损失的可能性,因为买方延迟连失败的建立信用。买方可能遭受损失的结果由卖方提交的单据不真正地代表运送货物。它并不是absoluted避免发生的银行可能会破产,或破产。除此之外,它更昂贵的使用信用证汇款或集合比作为银行将收取客户所有的服务,它提供了。所以信用证不一定是最理想的付款方法为一个特定的交易,缔约双方应作出最好的选择要根据具体conditions.

6。解释之间的差异可撤销信用证的、不可撤消的信用证吗?信用是一种可撤销这种承诺如果一个可以改变或甚至取消了未经咨询与受益人。这是很明显的出口商没有保证得到支付,因此这类学分是很少使用。不可撤销的积分是那些不能被修改或撤销在未经有关各方。安全可靠,这种在世界trade.

7有着广泛的应用。有什么重要内容的货单吗?主要内容的提单包括:(1)载体,如下。船运公司。(2)托运人或者托运人,通常都是出口商。(3)收货人。一般或进口商或制造出来的“秩序”。(4),即通知方。建议后,当事人在货物到达目的口岸。它通常代理收货人或者收货人自己。(五)一般descrption货物包括姓名、件数、重量、测量等。(6)唛头。(7)在装运港和目的港。(8)运费,CIF、CFR应该是“运费预付”,或“运费已付”,因为它是“讨论式装运港船上交货价运费到collcet”,或者“运费到付”,或者“fredight在目的港付"。(九)的地方,提单发行。(10)日签发提单是作为装船日期和无法迟于信用证规定我第八名。简要解释保险利益,举个例子来说明。保险是一种风险转移机制,藉由个人或企业可以改变生活中一些不确定因素的肩膀上别人。Inretrun保险费,通常为一个knowmn数量非常小的潜在损失相比,这一损失的费用可以被保险人。没有医疗保险,会有大量的不确定性所经历的个人或企业,不仅是一个损失是否会发生什么,而且它有可能规模如果新闻界真的注意到了问题的发生。例如,一个house_owner会意识到每年数百房屋被火灾。他是否在未来不确定性yerar他的房子将其中的损坏,而他也不能确定,因为他将会成为一位不幸的人,他的损失将达一百美元左右,他的redecoration ditchen或是这个房子将会失望,他花了几千美元来修复。虽然他的房子的可能性成为损失统计极低,平均house_owner iwll花钱,不过选择说$ 50到60美元给他买了房子保险,而不愿面对非常遥远的可能再次失去房子的价值200美元的000.

9。有什么主要的哪些因素会影响汇率?汇率的影响因素,包括以下几点:1。国际收支平衡表。它直接关系到供给与需求的外汇。其中一个表达式的值的货币将上去和良好的国际收支平衡收支赤字和落。2。通货膨胀。它是密切相关的真实价值的货币和竞争力的商品。当通货膨胀的加剧,人民币升值将降相对于外币,反之亦然。3。利率。在特定条件下,高的利率会吸引短期国际基金,增加汇率的货币和副versa.10。阐明了各自的优缺点和灵活的汇率体系的固定汇率制度。这两种不同汇率制的每一个都有其自身的优势。在固定汇率制度的风险降低国际商务和也是一个iimportant措施来抑制通货膨胀。然而,系统却容易乱改变币值。最近的例子是亚洲危机时Finaacial 1997-1998采用固定汇率东南亚一些国家像泰国和印度尼西亚倒塌,是一个沉重的打击,经济。灵活的汇率制度下汇率的波动的时间在一个确定的时间不会立即影响国内货币流通,有助于稳定经济。灵活的汇率也可以保护国内currecncy从外国的闲置资金的影响,有助于防止流失的外汇储备。但是,经常性的剧烈波动的货币的价值将会增加的风险影响国际贸易和投资。

补充:

有的不太通,但理解大致意思就好,你知道的,这个真不好翻译……

 

 

希望采纳

最新回答 (3条回答)

头像
匿名用户 7级
2011-08-17 回答
看着有点头绪
2011-08-17 回答
额,福建商贸?
Big wang 6级
2011-08-17 回答
看不懂,哪天我要看懂了 就不要上高中了··