英语翻译2 已做初步翻译,但是有些地方欠妥,需要按中文表达习惯来翻译,求更改...

Reconstruction and renewal   重建与复兴

Areas devastated by war or invasion challenge urban planners. Resources are scarce. The existing population has needs.

被战争和侵略破会的地方给了城市规划师一种新的挑战。那里的资源匮乏到不能满足现存人口的需求。

 Buildings, roads, services and basic infrastructure like power, water and sewerage are often damaged, but with salvageable parts.

建筑、道路以及电力、自来水、污水排放等基础服务设施都遭到破坏,但仍有部分可以挽救。

 Historic, religious or social centers also need to be preserved and re-integrated into the new city plan.

历史的、宗教的或者社会的中心也需要被保护,同时要重新纳入城市新建计划。

 A prime example of this is the capital city of Kabul, Afghanistan, which, after decades of civil war and occupation, has regions of rubble and desolation.

一个最好的例子就是阿富汗的首都喀布尔,那里经过数十年的国内战争和侵占,许多地方已变得荒凉不堪。

 Despite this, the indigenous population continues to live in the area, constructing makeshift homes and shops out of salvaged materials.

尽管如此,那里的人们还依旧住在那里,他们用废弃的材料建造了临时的住房和商店。

Any reconstruction plan, such as Hisham Ashkouri's City of Light Development, needs to be sensitive to the needs of this community and its existing culture and businesses.

任何的重建计划,譬如Hisham Ashkouri的光之城发展计划,都必须考虑到该地区的需求以及现存的文化、商业因素。

Urban Reconstruction Development plans must also work with government agencies as well as private interests to develop workable designs.

城市重建计划都必须与政府机构与私人协作来促成一个可行性的方案。

Transport  交通

Transport within urbanized areas presents unique problems.

城市交通是一个比较独特的难题。

The density of an urban environment increases traffic, which can harm businesses and increase pollution unless properly managed.

城市环境的密度增加了交通流量,除非进行适当管理否则它会破坏商业活动、增加污染。

Parking space for private vehicles requires the construction of large parking garages in high density areas.

私家车的增加要求在高密度地区建设大型的停车场

 This space could often be more valuable for other development.

对于其他形式的发展而言,这些停车位是更加有价值的。

Good planning uses transit oriented development, which attempts to place higher densities of jobs or residents near high-volume transportation.

应用大众导向发展的计划应在大容量交通地带安排更多的居民与工作岗位。

For example, some cities permit commerce and multi-story apartment buildings only within one block of train stations and multilane boulevards, and accept single-family dwellings and parks farther away.

例如,一些城市允许在火车站和多车道公路的一个街区范围内存在商业区和高层办公楼,还允许在较远地带存在独栋名居和公园。

Floor area ratio is often used to measure density. 容积率经常被用来测算密度。

This is the floor area of buildings divided by the land area.

它等于房屋面积除以陆地区域面积。

 Ratios below 1.5 are low density. Ratios above five very high density.

比率低于1.5就是低密度区域,高于5就是高密度区域。

Most exurbs are below two, while most city centres are well above five.

大多数远郊区的比率低于2,而大多市中心远高于5.

Walk-up apartments with basement garages can easily achieve a density of three. Skyscrapers easily achieve densities of thirty or more.

带地下车库的无电梯公寓可以轻松达到一个3的比率,摩天大楼可达到30或更高。

City authorities may try to encourage higher densities to reduce per-capita infrastructure costs. 城市当局鼓励更高的容积率来减少人均基础建设的花销。

In the UK, recent years have seen a concerted effort to increase the density of residential development in order to better achieve sustainable development.

在英国,近几年已经见证了人们为了更好地达到可持续发展而齐心协力降低居住密度

 Increasing development density has the advantage of making mass transport systems, district heating and other community facilities (schools, health centres, etc) more viable.

加强发展强度比发展大规模交通系统、集中供热以及其他社区设施(学校、卫生院等)建设更具有可行性。

However critics of this approach dub the densification of development as 'town cramming' and claim that it lowers quality of life and restricts market-led choice.

然而对这种方法的批评打击了作为“密集城镇”发展的致密性,而且声称它降低了生活质量、限制了自由贸易。

Problems can often occur at residential densities between about two and five.

人口居住密度在2和5之间时经常发生问题。

These densities can cause traffic jams for automobiles, yet are too low to be commercially served by trains or light rail systems.

这样的密集度会导致汽车的拥堵,但是对于火车和轻轨电车系统来说这样的密度还是太低。

The conventional solution is to use buses, but these and light rail systems may fail where automobiles and excess road network capacity are both available, achieving less than 2% ridership.

传统的解决方案是启用公共汽车,但是火车和轻轨电车可能废弃,因为汽车和附加的道路网容量还都是可利用的,最终公交车的上座率会不超过2%。

The Lewis-Mogridge Position claims that increasing road space is not an effective way of relieving traffic jams as latent or induced demand invariably emerges to restore a socially-tolerable level of congestion.

The Lewis-Mogridge Position认为增加道路空间不是一个缓解交通拥堵的一个有效方法,而应重建一个人们对拥塞的社会容忍度。