求一段英语翻译!

格莱斯提出了合作原则这一有关人类交际的总原则。但同时他又指出,在现实交际中人们并不都严格遵守该原则。违背合作原则的情况与方式是多样的。说话人可以故意暗中违背准则,从而误导听话人。格莱斯概括了四类情况:

第一类:说话的一方悄悄地,不让听话人发觉他违反了合作原则,从而将听话人引入歧途。有意说谎就属于此类。此时说话人违反了质准则。

第二类:说话人宣布不愿意合作,不遵守准则。如果有人向他提问,他会表示不愿作答,或表示他不能说更多的话。

第三类:说话人可能面临一种顾此失彼的局面。比如根据交际要求,说话人想遵守质准则,但与此同时他可能会违反其他准则。

第四类:说话人可能有意不遵守某一准则,但他相信听话人会觉察到这一点,并认为对方仍会继续合作;而听话人也知道说话人并不是存心蒙骗自己。

 

 

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ooo 6级
2011-01-20 回答

Goliath put forward the cooperative principle about human communication by the general principles. But at the same time, he noted in real communication people are not strictly abide by the principles. Violation of the cooperative principle situation and the way is varied. Speaker might deliberately violated standards, thus secretly misleading obedient. Goliath summarizes four categories:

The first category: speak quietly, don't let the party that he broke the obedient cooperative principle, which will be obedient people astray. Deliberately lying fall into that category. Now speaker violated the quality standards.

The second: speaker announced unwilling to cooperate, not to the standards. If someone question to him, he would mean to be unwilling to answer, or said he can't say more words.

Third class: speaker could face a towards the situation. For example, the speaker according to communication required to comply with qualitative criteria, but meanwhile he might be in violation of other criteria.

Iv: speaker may be willing to don't comply with a certain criteria, but he believes obedient people find this point, and thinks that the other will continue to cooperate; And obedient person knows not knowingly deceive talk himself.

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匿名用户 1级
2011-01-20 回答
Grice's cooperative principles proposed a general principles relating to human communication. But he also pointed out that, in real communication people do not comply strictly with the principles. Contrary to the principles of cooperation and is varied. Speaker can be deliberately secretly violate the guidelines, so as to mislead the obedient men. Goliath outlines four categories of cases: the first category: party to speak quietly, not obedient man found he violated the principles of cooperation, so as to be obedient people astray. Intentionally lied to belong to this class. Speaker violation quality guidelines at this time. Category II: speaker announced no willingness to cooperate, does not comply with the code. If someone were to ask him questions, he would prefer not to respond, or that he could not say more words. Third category: speaker may face a situation in which have too many things to take care of at the same time. For example, according to the communication requirements, talk to people who want to comply with the quality criteria, but at the same time he might violate other norms. The fourth category: speaker may intentionally fails to comply with a standard, but he believed that the obedient person be aware of this, and that the other will continue to cooperate and obedient people know that the speaker is not the intent to deceive themselves.

最新回答 (1条回答)

2011-01-21 回答

Goliath put forward the cooperative principle about human communication by the general principles. But at the same time, he noted in real communication people are not strictly abide by the principles. Violation of the cooperative principle situation and the way is varied. Speaker might deliberately violated standards, thus secretly misleading obedient. Goliath summarizes four categories:

The first category: speak quietly, don't let the party that he broke the obedient cooperative principle, which will be obedient people astray. Deliberately lying fall into that category. Now speaker violated the quality standards.

The second: speaker announced unwilling to cooperate, not to the standards. If someone question to him, he would mean to be unwilling to answer, or said he can't say more words.

Third class: speaker could face a towards the situation. For example, the speaker according to communication required to comply with qualitative criteria, but meanwhile he might be in violation of other criteria.

Iv: speaker may be willing to don't comply with a certain criteria, but he believes obedient people find this point, and thinks that the other will continue to cooperate; And obedient person knows not knowingly deceive talk himself.