The engine produces the power to drive the vehicle . The drive line or drive train transfer the power of the engine to the wheels . The drive train consists of the parts from the back of the flywheel to the wheels . These parts include the clutch , the transmission ,the drive shaft ,and the final drive assembly .
The clutch which includes the flywheel ,clutch disc , pressure plate , springs , pressure plate cover and the linkage necessary to operate the clutch is a rotating mechanism between the engine and the transmission . It operates through friction which comes from contact between the parts . That is the reason why the clutch is called a friction mechanism . After engagement, the clutch must continue to transmit all engine torque to transmission depending on the friction without slippage . The clutch is also used to disengage the engine from the drive train whenever the gears in the transmission are being shifted from gear ratio to another .
To start the engine or shift the gears , the driver has to depress the clutch pedal with the purpose of disengagement the transmission from the engine . At that time , the driven members connected to the transmission input shaft are either stationary or rotating at a speed that is slower of faster than the driving members connected to engine crankshaft . There is no spring pressure on the clutch assembly parts . So there is no friction between the driving members and driven members . As the driver lets loose the clutch pedal , spring pressure increase on the clutch parts . Friction between the parts also increases . The pressure exerted by the springs on the driven members is controlled by the driver through the clutch pedal and linkage . The positive engagement of the driving and driven members is made possible the friction between the surfaces of the members . When full spring pressure is applied , the speed of the driving and driven members should be the same . At the moment , the clutch must act as a coupling device and transmit all engine power to the transmission , without slipping .
However , the transmission should be engaged to the engine gradually in order to operate the car smoothly and minimize torsional shock on the drive train because an engine at idle just develop little power . Otherwise , the driving members are connected with the driven members too quickly and the engine would be stalled .
The flywheel is a major part of the clutch . The flywheel mounts to the engine’s crankshaft and transmits engine torque to the clutch assembly . The flywheel , when coupled with the clutch disc and pressure plate makes and breaks the flow of power the engine to the transmission .
The flywheel provides a mounting location for the clutch assembly as well . When the clutch is applied , the flywheel transfers engine torque to the clutch disc . Because of its weight , the flywheel helps to smooth engine operation . The flywheel also has a large ring gear at its outer edge , which engages with a pinion gear on the starter motor during engine cranking .
The clutch disc fits between the flywheel and the pressure plate . The clutch disc has a splined hub that fits over splines on the transmission input shaft . A splined hub has grooves that match splines on the shaft . These splines fit in the grooves . Thus , the two parts held together . However , back – and – forth movement of the disc on the shaft is possible . Attached to the input shaft , the disc turns at the speed of the shaft .
The clutch pressure plate is generally made of cast iron . It is round and about the same diameter as the clutch disc . One side of the pressure plate is machined smooth . This side will press the clutch disc facing are against the flywheel . The outer side has shapes to facilitate attachment of spring and release mechanism . The two primary types of pressure plate assemblies are coil spring assembly and diaphragm spring .
In a coil spring clutch the pressure plate is backed by a number of coil springs and housed with them in a pressed – steed cover bolted to the flywheel . The spring push against the cover . Neither the driven plate nor the pressure plate is connected rigidly to the flywheel and both can move either towards it o away . When the clutch pedal is depressed a thrust pad riding on a carbon or ball thrust bearing is forced towards the flywheel . Levers pivoted so that they engage with the thrust pad at one end and the pressure plate tat the other end pull the pressure plate back against its springs . This releases pressure on the driven plate disconnecting the gearbox from the engine .
Diaphragm spring pressure plate assemblies are widely used in most modern cars . The diaphragm spring is a single thin sheet of metal which yields when pressure is applied to it . When pressure is removed the metal spring back to its original shape . The center portion of the diaphragm spring is slit into numerous fingers that act as release levers . When the clutch assembly rotates with the engine these weights are flung outwards by centrifugal plate and cause the levers to press against the pressure plate . During disengagement of the clutch the fingers are moved forward by the release bearing . The spring pivots over the fulcrum ring and its outer rim moves away from the flywheel . The retracting spring pulls the pressure plate away from the clutch plate thus disengaging the clutch .
When engaged the release bearing and the fingers of the diaphragm spring move towards the transmission . As the diaphragm pivots over the pivot ring its outer rim forces the pressure plate against the clutch disc so that the clutch plate is engaged to flywheel .
The advantages of a diaphragm type pressure plate assembly are its compactness , lower weight , fewer moving parts , less effort to engage , reduces rotational imbalance by providing a balanced force around the pressure plate and less chances of clutch slippage .
The clutch pedal is connected to the disengagement mechanism either by a cable or , more commonly , by a hydraulic system . Either way , pushing the pedal down operates the disengagement mechanism which puts pressure on the fingers of the clutch diaphragm via a release bearing and causes the diaphragm to release the clutch plate . With a hydraulic mechanism , the clutch pedal arm operates a piston in the clutch master cylinder . This forces hydraulic fluid through a pipe to the cutch release cylinder where another operates the clutch disengagement mechanism by a cable .
The other parts including the clutch fork , release bearing , bell – housing , bell housing cover , and pilot bushing are needed to couple and uncouple the transmission . The clutch fork , which connects to the linkage , actually operates the clutch . The release bearing fits between the clutch fork and the pressure plate assembly . The bell housing covers the clutch assembly . The bell housing cover fastens to the bottom of the bell housing . This removable cover allows a mechanic to inspect the clutch without removing the transmission and bell housing . A pilot bushing fits into the back of the crankshaft and holds the transmission input shaft .
Drive train 传动系
Drive shaft 传动轴
Pressure plate 压盘
Clutch disc 离合器从动盘，离合器摩擦片
Gear ratio 传动比
Release bearing 分离轴承
Release fork 分离拨叉
Master cylinder 主缸
Clutch pedal 离合器踏板
Coupling device 结合装置
At idle 空转。空闲
Couple with 与。。。。。。。结合
Ring gear 外形齿轮，齿圈
Pinion gear 小齿轮
Splined hub 花键毂
Cast iron 铸铁
Diaphragm spring 膜片弹簧
Thrust pad 止推片
Engage with 结合
Centrifugal force 离心力
Fulcrum ring 支撑环
Pilot bushing 导轴衬
Bell housing 钟形外壳，离合器壳
该引擎产生的动力来驱动汽车。该驱动器或驱动器线列车转让发动机的动力给车轮。该驱动器列车由从飞轮回轮的部分。这些部件包括离合器，变速器，传动轴和驱动器的最后装配。 离合器包括飞轮，离合器盘，压力板，弹簧，压盘盖和连锁经营所需的离合器之间的发动机和传动旋转机制。它通过摩擦，从接触到的部分之间。这就是为什么被称为摩擦离合器机制的原因。订婚后，离合器必须继续传送到所有的引擎扭矩传输取决于无滑移摩擦。离合器还用于脱离驱动列车在传输时的齿轮正在从齿轮比转移到另一个引擎。 要启动引擎或转向齿轮，司机不得不压低离合器踏板同脱离接触的从发动机传递的目的。当时，被驱动的成员连接到变速器输入轴不是静止或在速度较慢比连接到发动机曲轴旋转速度更快的驾驶人员。有没有对离合器总成件弹簧压力。因此，有驾驶成员之间没有摩擦和推动成员。由于司机松开离合器踏板让，弹簧离合器零件的压力增加。部件之间的摩擦也不断增加。通过对驱动的成员施加压力的弹簧，通过控制离合器踏板和联系的驱动程序。针对酒后驾驶及驾驶成员的积极参与是可能的成员之间的摩擦表面。当弹簧的压力是完全适用，对驾驶和驾驶人员的速度应该是相同的。目前，离合器必须作为一个耦合装置和所有发动机的动力传输到变速器，不会滑倒。 然而，传输应当参与到引擎逐步以经营汽车顺利，尽量减少对传动系统扭转冲击，因为发动机在怠速刚刚开发出来的权力。否则，驾驶人员均与被驱动的成员太快，引擎会停止。 飞轮是离合器的重要组成部分。飞轮安装到发动机的曲轴和发动机扭矩传递到离合器总成。飞轮，当离合器盘，压盘，加上制造和打破了功率流对传输引擎。 飞轮提供了一种离合器总成的安装位置以及。当离合器应用，转让发动机飞轮扭矩离合器盘。由于其重量，发动机飞轮有助于顺利运作。飞轮也有其外缘，并与一对在发动机手摇起动电机齿轮齿圈齿轮搞大。 离合器盘和飞轮之间的适合的压力板。离合器盘毂花键有超过上传输输入轴花键配合。甲花键集线器沟槽相匹配的花键轴。这些花键配合的沟槽。因此，这两个部分一并举行。然而，历史 - - 提出关于轴盘运动是可能的。附加的输入轴，圆盘轮流在轴的速度。 离合器压盘，一般铸铁。它是圆的，有关的离合器盘直径相同。其中一个压盘一边是加工顺利。这方面将面临按离合器盘是对飞轮。外面的方形状，以方便春天和释放机制的附件。压盘的两个组件的主要类型是弹簧装配和膜片弹簧。 在弹簧离合器压盘是由一个弹簧数量的支持，并与他们住在一压 - 骏马盖螺栓的飞轮。反对盖春天的推动。无论是从动盘压盘，也不是一成不变地连接都可以移动飞轮朝它Ø要么离开。当离合器踏板被压下推力垫球上的碳或推力轴承骑被迫向飞轮。杠杆无所不能，让他们参与到推力瓦在1月底和压力板达另一端拉回来对其压力板弹簧。这对推动切断发动机的变速箱板释放压力。 膜片弹簧压力板组件被广泛应用于最先进的汽车。膜片弹簧是一个单一的金属而产生压力时，它适用于薄板。当压力消除了金属弹簧回复到原来的形状。膜片弹簧的中心部分是手指缝成无数的作为释放杠杆。当离合器总成这些权重是由旋转离心盘向外逃窜，并导致杠杆，新闻界对压盘与引擎。在本离合器脱离接触的手指向前释放的影响。在支点环及其外缘移动远离飞轮弹簧支点。在回缩弹簧拉压盘离合器片远离从而脱离了离合器。 当从事的释放轴承和对膜片弹簧传输移动手指。由于在支点的支点戒指，膜片离合器片是从事飞轮的外边缘势力的反对离合器压盘光盘等。 一种隔膜式压力板组装的优点是它的体积小，重量减轻，活动部件少，较少的努力进行，减少了周围的压力提供了一个平衡板离合器滑移力和旋转不平衡的机会较少。 离合器踏板连接到脱离接触机制可以通过电缆或更常见的是，由一个液压系统。无论哪种方式，推动踏板下运作机制，提出了脱离接触对膜片离合器通过手指的压力释放轴承，造成膈肌释放离合器片。随着液压机构，离合器踏板在操作臂离合器总泵活塞。这迫使通过向儿茶释放缸由另一名经营机制脱离接触电缆管道离合器液压油。 其他部分包括离合器拨叉，分离轴承，钟 - 住房，钟外壳盖，衬套和试点需要有夫妇和传输脱钩。离合器叉，连接到连锁，其实经营离合器。该版本之间的离合器轴承适合叉和压力板组装。钟住房涵盖离合器总成。钟住房覆盖扣紧到钟外壳底部。这个可移动的盖子允许机械师检查而不删除的传输和钟住房离合器。飞行员衬套装入曲轴的背部和变速器输入轴持有。