哪些动词加ing就可以直接变为名词

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虎虎虎 4级
2010-03-14 回答

动词加ING即动名词

动名词从它的名称上就知道它具有动词和名词的功能,因此它在句中,可作主语、表语、宾语、定语。  下面我们就它的句法功能一一例举: (1)动名词作主语: a. Fishing is a relaxing pastime. 垂钓是一种轻松的消遣。 Climbing a mountain is tiring. 登山很累。 b. 在某些形容词如good,boring,foolish,wonderful,use-less,difficult,nice等作表语,动名词作主语时,可用it作形式主语。如: his boring watching TV all day. 整天看电视非常枯燥。 It is difficult translating poems into other languages. 把诗词译成其他语言很难。 c. 但在有些形容词如important,essential,impossible,necessary等作表语时,主语只能用动词不定式,而不能用动名词。如:It's important to keep fit. 身体健康是很重要的。 d. 在It is+no good/no use/fun等名词作表语时,后用动名词。这时it 也是形式主语,而动名词短语为主语。如: It's fun sailing in the sea. 在海上航行是很有趣的。 e. 我们常见的标语牌“禁止……”是由“No+动名词”构成。 如: No parking. 禁止停车。   No smoking.禁止吸烟。 (2)动名词作表语: My favorite pastime is playing chess. 我的最大的业余爱好是下棋。 (3)动名词作宾语: a. 作某些及物动词的宾语: 常见的动词有:advise,avoid,delay,escape,excuse,en-joy,consider,finish,deny,fancy,keep,mind(在乎) postphone,pardon,practise,suggest,imagine等。need,want,require后接动名词,表示被动意义。如: Would you mind opening the door?请你把门打开好吗? Fancy meeting you here. 真想不到在这里遇见你。 有些动词如think,find,consider可用it作形式宾语。 如: I think it use less talking to such a man. 我想对这样的人谈话是无用的。 We found it great fun collecting stamps. 我们发现集邮很有趣。 b. 作介词的宾语: He left without saying good-bye to us. 他没有和我们道别就离开了。 On arriving at the airport,I saw my mother standing in the crowd,waving to me. 一到机场,我就看见我母亲站在人群中,向我招手。 c. 作某些词组的宾语: 常见的词组有give up,go on,put off,can't help,can't stand,be worth,be devoted to,be accustomed to,be used to,object to insist on,look forward to,besure of,be keen on,be fond of,be good at,be tired of,be interested in,be afraid of等。例: I'm looking forward to having the summer holiday in Kun-ming. 我盼望去昆明度暑假。 He gave up smoking several months ago. 几个月前,他戒烟了。 某些词组后接动名词作宾语时,可省略词组中的介词。常见的词组如下: He spends hours(in)reading newspapers everyday.他每天花数小时阅读报纸。 We mustn't waste time(in)arguing.我们不能浪费时间争论。 The young doctor lacks experience(in)doing such kind of operation. 那年轻的医生在动这种手术上缺乏经验。 我们必须阻止这些十多岁的孩子吸烟。 他们讲英语(没)有困难。 We had a hard time(in)finding jobs. 我们一度找工作找得很苦。 They earn a living(by)doing housework for other families. 他们为别的家庭做家务来谋生计。 (4)动名词作定语: This swimming pool is big. 这个游泳池很大。 动名词作定语的词组有: a sleeping car 卧铺车厢; a dining-room 餐厅; a walking stick 文明杖; a waiting-room 候车室; a shopping centre 购物中心;等等。 2. 动名词与不定式的区别: (1)一般来说,动名词表示的是一般或笼统的动作,而不定式则往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。试比较: (2)有些动词后既可用动名词,也可用不定式,但有的意义一样,有的意义却不同。如: a. 在need,want,require后接动名词和动词不定式的被动式,意义相同,都表示被动,并都带有在客观上需要……的意思。如: 这电视机需要修理。 这小孩需要照顾。 这台洗衣机需要检查。 b. 在begin,start,continue后接动名词和不定式都可以,一般情况下意义相同。如: 去年他们开始打篮球。 但如果碰到以下情况,begin和start后须用动词不定式: (a)主语是物: The milk began to boil. 牛奶开始煮沸了。 (b)后接心理活动或状态的动词: They began to know the danger ahead of them. 他们开始意识到他们有危险。  (c)begin和start用于进行时态: They were starting to have dinner when 1 went in. 我进去时他们刚要吃饭。 (d)后接被动式: The TV tower started to be built several years ago. 电视塔是在几年前开始建造的。 c. 在hate,like,love,prefer后可接动名词,也可接不定式,但意义不同,接动名词表示经常发生的动作,而接动词不定式则表示某一具体的动作。如: d. 在remember,forget,regret后接动名词表示已做过的事,而接动词不定式表示动作还未发生。如: e. 又如mean,try,go on,stop后接动名词和动词不定式,意义完全不同: meandoing意味着……/mean to do 想…… His breaking the arm meant his doing things carelessly. 他摔坏了手臂意味着他做事粗心。 I meant to say I was sorry. 我想说声对不起。 try doing试试看(用某种方法)/try to do设法、试图If you can't work out the problem this way,try doing it in that way. 如你用这种方法做不出这道题,试用那种方法。 I'm trying to open the door,but I don't think I can. 我正设法打开门,但我想我是徒劳的。 go on doing继续干某事/go on to do接着又去干另外一件事。 He was reading when he beard the door bell. He opened the door and went on reading. 他在看书时听到门铃响。他开了门又继续看书。 When he finished doing his homework,he went on to practise playing the piano. 他做完作业后,接着又练习弹钢琴了。 stop doing sth. 停止做某事。stop to do sth. 停下来去做某事。如: Would you please stop talking?Let's listen to the story. 请你们停止说话,我们来听故事。 I'm tired. I want to stop to have a rest. 我很累。我想停下来休息一会。 f. be afraid of+动名词与be afraid+动词不定式的区别: be afraid of+动名词表示“害怕并希望避免可以预料的后果”。如: He was afraid of taking the exam because he thought he might fail. 因为他想他可能会不通过,所以他害怕参加考试。 be afraid+动词不定式表示“怕有某种后患而不敢做某事”。如: She was afraid to walk in the dark street. 她怕在黑暗的街道上走路。 3.动名词的逻辑主语: (1)动名词的逻辑主语一般用名词所有格(××’s)或物主代词(my,your,his,her,our,their)充当。这种用名词所有格或物主代词+动名词构成的形式叫复合结构。如: Would you mind my opening the door?我开门,你介意吗?(c. f. Would you mind opening the door?请把门打开。第一句是让你去开门,第二句是我来开门。) (2)在口语中和非正式文体中常用人称代词宾格作动名词的逻辑主语。如: The doctor suggested them having their health check-up once a year. 医生建议他们每年检查一次身体。 (3)但如果有下列情况,必须用名词通格和人称代词宾格作逻辑主语。 a. 逻辑主语是无生命事物或名词词组: The news of the newly opened bank being robbed of wasre-ally unbelievable. 新开张的银行被抢的消息简直不可相信。 b. 逻辑主语是不定代词或指示代词: I don't mind this fish being cooked this way. 我不介意这鱼这样来煮。 Last night,I was frightened by someone knocking at the door. 昨晚,我被敲门声吓了一跳。 c. 逻辑主语是由—s结尾的名词: What made me annoyed was the students calling nicknames to each other. 使我恼火的是学生互相叫外号。 (4)介词+动名词结构作状语的逻辑主语应与主句的主语相一致。如: On seeing her mother,she began to cry.(She saw her mother. She began to cry.)她一见到她的母亲,就哭了。 4. 动名词的否定式: 动名词的否定形式是在动名词前加not。例如: His not coming to the party made me angry.他不来参加聚会使我恼火。 5. 动名词的被动式: 动名词的被动式,即being+过去分词。例如: The boy likes being praised in public. 那孩子喜欢在大庭广众前受到表扬。 6. 动名词的完成式: 动名词的完成式,即having+过去分词,强调动名词的动作发生在谓语动词动作的前面,但也可以用一般式。

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追问:
我是说动词加上ing就是一个名词,不是动名词
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