Workers in on-the-job training programs are paid during the learning process, although their wages are usually lower than those of fully trained employees. Usually, the longer the training required, the higher the wages. For example, according to BLS, the median annual wage for workers in occupations that typically require long-term on-the-job training was $37,360 in 2006, compared with $29,100 for those that usually require moderate-term on-the-job training and $19,620 for those usu­ally requiring short-term on-the-job training.
Occupations with many openings. Occupations in which most workers have no formal education beyond high school are concentrated in specific areas of the economy. Food preparation and serving, production, and transportation and material moving occupations are the largest distinct occupational groups, accounting for half of all workers in 2006, according to BLS. (See chart 7.) However, the largest fields are not necessarily those that are projected to have the most favorable prospects.
Chart 8 lists the occupations in this category that are expected to have the most openings over the 2006–16 decade. These openings will result from both job growth and the need to replace workers who leave. Many types of occupations are represented, but there is a significant number of food preparation and serving jobs. Wages in these occupations are usually low, with one exception: Truck drivers had wages that were higher than the average for all occupations in 2006.
The average rate of growth projected for high school-level occupations is lower than the average for all occupations. And, as with all jobs, competition may be a factor, espe­cially for those that pay well. But there should still be many openings for jobseekers who have a high school diploma or less.
Major fields of work. Many workers whose highest level of educational attainment is a high school diploma or less have jobs in food preparation and serving; production; transportation and material moving; construc­tion; and installation, maintenance, and repair occupations.
Food preparation and serving. Food preparation occupations are a common option for many of these workers. In 2006, BLS data show that the food services and drink­ing places industry was among the Nation’s largest employers, with about 9.4 million wage and salary jobs. And these occupations are projected to grow with the U.S. population and the increased popularity of dining out. (See table 18.) The need to replace workers who leave means there should always be lots of openings.
Production. Although many of the production occupations in table 19 are not expected to grow through 2016, opportunities will result from the need to replace retiring workers. Employment in production occupa­tions is projected to be adversely affected by increased automation and strong foreign competition. These same factors are causing an increase in the skill level of production occupations, so workers may need more train­ing—but they may also earn higher wages.
Transportation and material moving. Most transportation and material moving occupations, including those shown in table 20, are projected to have many openings. Employment in these occupations is expected to grow along with the U.S. population, and most of the occupations are strongly affected by growth in the national economy and the rising demand for the movement of goods and people around the country.
In these occupations, as in most others, workers who have higher level skills usually have higher wages. Truck and bus drivers have the highest wages among transportation and material moving occupations, reflect­ing the skill and training required to perform their jobs. Truck drivers, for example, must pass both written and field evaluations before receiving certification, and with more experi­ence they earn both higher wages and more control over their routes. And workers in support occupations, such as freight laborers, can use on-the-job experience to advance to supervisory positions.
Construction. Some construction occupa­tions usually require little training, but others demand significant skill and experience that are usually gained through formal instruction in an apprenticeship program or technical school. And some occupations in this field—including plumbers and electricians—are subject to licensing requirements. But higher level skills often mean higher wages; all but one of the occupations in table 21 have wages that are above the average for all occupations.
Construction workers are expected to have good prospects, especially those skilled in specialty trades who are frequently called upon to work as subcontractors. Population growth across the country, especially in the South and West, and the need to regularly maintain the Nation’s infrastructure, are pro­jected to spur new construction projects over the 2006–16 decade.
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations. For workers with a high school-level education, these occupations are among those that offer the highest wages, a result of the significant skill and training usually required to enter them. Most of these workers have no formal postsecondary training, but significant portions do. Installation, maintenance and repair workers generally learn the skills they need either through formal postsecondary education programs or structured on-the-job training. Many of the occupations in table 22 require certification, and an associate degree can greatly enhance prospects.
The job outlook for installation, main­tenance, and repair occupations is expected to be favorable. Many workers are nearing retirement age and will need to be replaced. In addition, the increasing number of cars, buses, and machines will require more technicians who are qualified to maintain and repair them.
Earnings premiums for completing high school. Not all jobs usually require that work­ers have a high school diploma or its equiva­lent. However, completing high school or passing a General Educational Development (GED) exam—a test that certifies academic skills equivalent to a high school education— can lead to better opportunities and higher earnings.
Workers who have a high school diploma but no postsecondary training earn about $8,000 more, on average, than workers who did not graduate from high school. The benefits of having more education vary by occupation; some provide more of a premium for those who have completed high school, but others provide less.
Table 23 shows occupations in which workers who have a high school diploma enjoy large earnings premiums over those who don’t. Earnings for workers who have some college education are also included for comparison purposes. Most of these occupations usually require significant training, although not usually through formal programs. Because of the amount of training needed, employers often prefer to hire people who have shown the ability and perseverance to finish high school.
Table 24 shows occupations that have low earnings premiums for occupations that usu­ally require completion of high school. These occupations have lower skill requirements and typically require little training.
In both tables, there is a bigger jump in wages for having completed high school than for having some postsecondary educa­tion. This may serve as an indicator of the importance employers place on earning a high school diploma.
职业与许多开口。 职业，大多数工人没有超出高中正规教育在经济的具体领域集中。食品制作和服务，生产，运输和物质运动的职业是最大的不同的职业群体，2006年为所有工人的一半，根据劳工统计局。 （见图7）。然而，最大的领域并不一定是那些预计将有最良好的前景。
工作的主要领域。 其最高教育程度等许多工人是一个高中文凭或更少在准备食物的工作和服务，生产，运输和物质运动; construc -重刑，以及安装，维护和修理行业。
食品制作和服务。食物的准备工作是为这些工人有许多共同的选择。 2006年，劳工统计局的数据显示，食品和饮料服务，荷兰地方工业是美国最大的雇主约940万美元的工资和薪金的工作，。而这些行业预计将增长与美国人口和外出就餐日益流行。 （见表18。）需要更换的工人离开意味着谁应该总是开口手。
在这些职业，正如大多数人，谁的工人有较高的技术水平通常有较高的工资。卡车和公共汽车司机在运输和移动行业的材料，工资最高，反映，荷兰国际集团的技术和培训需要执行工作。卡车司机，例如，必须通过书面和实地评估之前，接受认证，并与更多experi - EnCE的他们的收入都对自己的路线更高的工资和更多的控制权。如货运劳动者职业工人的支持，可以使用在职经验，提前监督职位。