In a high-end Mumbai neighborhood, Indian billionaire Mukesh Ambani's personal high-rise, named Antilia, is under construction. When completed, the 24-story family home will include its own health club, terraced sky-gardens and 50-seat screening room.
Antilia also boasts three helipads and a 168-car garage. This may sound like transportation overkill, if not outright eco-terrorism, for a family of six. But despite its 38-to-1 car-to-person ratio, Antilia has been billed by its American architects as a "green building." And under the leading standards for green architecture, it will likely qualify.
Antilia's architects, Perkins & Will of Chicago, plan to evaluate its greenness based on the criteria of the U.S. Green Building Council, a nonprofit founded in 1993 "to advance structures that are environmentally responsible, profitable and healthy places to live and work." The group's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system, launched in 2000, has become the widely accepted standard.
Using its "Rating System Checklist," the council evaluates a building's water and energy efficiency, land use, choice of materials and indoor environmental quality. Based on the results, it certifies buildings on a scale from simply "LEED Certified" up through Silver, Gold and Platinum. But because of the checklist system, even a building like Antilia loses only a single point for parking capacity.
Critics of LEED – many of them architects who were green before green was cool – see a system that's easy to game and has more to do with generating good PR than saving the planet. Just a few years ago, such criticisms were limited to architectural and environmental circles, but the loopholes in LEED are no longer a trivial problem. Green building has gone mainstream.
The point system creates perverse incentives to design around the checklist rather than to build the greenest building possible. Consider the example of the University of Michigan architecture school, whose dean, Doug Kelbaugh, is a lifelong believer in green architecture.
His school is embarking on a major addition to its facilities, but Mr. Kelbaugh is on the fence about going for LEED certification. The addition is planned for the roof of an existing building – the greenest site possible, given that heat will rise up through the floor and no new land will be used. But LEED gives points for water-efficient landscaping, so a rooftop project that by definition has no landscaping is already down two points out of a possible 69.
在高端孟买附近，印度亿万富翁安巴尼的个人高楼，名为安地利亚，正在建设中。当完成后，24层的家，包括自己的健康俱乐部，露台空中花园和50个座位的放映室。 安地利亚还拥有3个直升机停机坪和一个168车库。这听起来像交通矫枉过正，如果不是彻底生态恐怖主义，一个六口之家。但是，尽管其38至1汽车对人的比例，安地利亚被称为“绿色建筑的美国建筑师结算。”并根据绿色建筑的主要标准，它可能会资格。 安地利亚的建筑师，帕金斯将与芝加哥，计划以评估其绿色环保的基础上，美国绿色建筑委员会，非盈利性的标准于1993年成立的“推进结构，对环境负责，盈利和健康的生活和工作的地方。”该集团在能源与环境设计评级制度在2000年推出，领导，已成为广泛接受的标准。 利用其“评级体系表”，该委员会评估建筑物的水及能源效益，土地使用，材料和室内环境质量的选择。根据调查结果，它证明建筑物的规模，从简单的“绿色建筑认证”透过银卡，金卡和白金。但是，由于失去清单制度，即使是像安地利亚建设只是一个单点停车能力。 批评的绿色建筑-其中许多建筑师之前谁是凉爽的绿色环保-看到一个系统，很容易的游戏，并与发电比拯救地球很好的公关工作要做。就在几年前，这些批评仅限于建筑和环境界，但在绿色建筑上的漏洞，不再是一个小问题。绿色建筑已经成为主流。 扣分制度创造了不良动机设计围绕清单，而不是建立环保的大楼的可能。考虑到美国密歇根大学建筑学院为例，他们的院长，道Kelbaugh，是在绿色建筑终身信徒。 他的学校正在开展一个重大的除了它的设施，但先生Kelbaugh上有关的LEED认证将栅栏。所增加的计划在现有建筑物屋顶-可能是最环保的网站，因为加热会迎接通过地板，没有新的土地将被使用。但是，绿色建筑给出了供水点，有效美化环境，使屋顶的项目，通过定义没有美化已经出掉了两个百分点的可能69